The determination of an airplane's altitude by a pilot is paramount for several operational necessities, such as maintaining a safe distance from other in-flight aircraft, landing estimation, and terrain clearance. There are six types of altitude that are of navigational importance in this context, those of which include true altitude (TA), calibrated altitude (CA), density altitude (DA), pressure altitude (PA), indicated altitude, and absolute altitude.


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There are various power sources used across systems in numerous industries, and each system is named for its power source. For example, a pneumatic system depends on pneumatic power which is generated by compressed air. The energy generated by this air powers movement in other parts of the pneumatic system, such as the spring inside of an actuator. The exact pressure and rate of airflow inside a pneumatic system must be regulated carefully because this directly determines the amount of power running through the system. Therefore, the very important function of a pneumatic valve or directional control valve is to regulate the air powering the entire system.


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Fasteners are some of the most important elements of an aircraft, serving to secure parts together to form robust and reliable assemblies. Depending on the assembly in question, its various requirements, and environmental conditions, there are a number of specialized fasteners that may be used. For sections such as the airframe, fasteners like solid shank rivets are useful for their ability to create permanent attachments with ample strength so that they can undertake various stressors. Solid shank rivets typically require access to both sides of an assembly for installation, meaning that they are harder to use where space and access is restricted. For such sections, there is a solution in the form of specialized rivets known as blind rivets, and we will discuss them in more detail.


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Supporting enormous weight and landing forces, landing gear is an incredible piece of aircraft engineering. Though they are critical aircraft components, most people do not understand their complexity. Not only do they account for roughly 7% of the maximum takeoff weight, but they also prevent the fuselage from abruptly hitting the ground.


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An actuator is an electric component within a machine that moves and controls a system. Using an energy source and control signal such as current or voltage, human power, hydraulic liquid force, or pneumatics, hydraulic actuators can serve a diverse set of applications.


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A gas turbine is an advanced form of an internal combustion engine that has found use in various vehicles, namely aircraft. Being the most widely used propulsion system for commercial aircraft, the gas turbine is an important system to understand for anyone interested in aviation. In this blog, we will discuss the function, history, and applications of the gas turbine in aviation.


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Hobbyists, gamers, and enterprise users of PCs and laptops usually have one thing in common; they want to optimize the performance of their system.  While many variables play into performance, one that is becoming exceedingly important is the graphics card. Whether an engineer is trying to visualize a 3D model or a microscopist is hoping to visualize fluorescent enhanced cells in real-time, the specifications of graphics cards can make or break a project. With this in mind, understanding the various specifications required for a graphic card's optimal performance is essential for anyone trying to build or upgrade their computer or laptop. In this blog, we will discuss several important factors one should consider when seeking a graphics card.


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The search for a perfect bearing can often be a daunting task, bearing catalogs regularly featuring countless numbers, letters, and codes that many may be unfamiliar with. As the choice of bearings can easily make the difference between smooth operations and failing assemblies, it is crucial that one has a basic understanding of bearing systems, their numbers, and codes. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of such practices, ensuring that you can find an optimal fit for your needs.


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Bearings are components that are crucial to the efficient operations of countless systems, constraining motion while mitigating the friction that occurs between surfaces that move across one another. For rolling element bearings to efficiently operate with long and reliable service-lives, they require ample lubrication. Lubricants ensure that moving parts are separate from one another, making it so that rollers and raceways face little wear and tear over time. To achieve an ideal protective film, a bearing must have the right type of lubrication added.


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While aircraft powered by electricity is the future that many engineers seek to obtain, most current models operate through the combustion of fuel and air mixtures. Whether using the combustion of fuel and air mixtures for powering propellers or to create thrust through increasing the velocity of exhaust gases, all internal combustion engines must vent their spent gases in the form of exhaust. The aircraft exhaust system can often vary depending upon the aircraft in question and the design of its engine, though there are a number of ways in which they can remain similar. In this blog, we will discuss some common design features of the aircraft exhaust system, allowing you to better understand how they are built and maintained.


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Secondary data storage is paramount for the standard operations of a computer, allowing for files, pictures, programs, and other forms of data to be retained over time. Hard drives commonly serve as the most widely used secondary data storage types for building PCs, typically coming in the form of hard disk drives (HDD), SATA, and solid state drives (SSD). As each device varies in its construction, capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages, having a general understanding of each and how they compare to one another is beneficial when making a purchasing decision.


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Modern cell phones have radically changed how we interact with the digital world, allowing users to access features of the internet anywhere they can receive a connection. This accessibility has made the internet more convenient for users, allowing them to conduct business, connect with others, find entertainment, and much more. While many have long grown accustomed to the benefits of portable internet provided by cell phones, such features have only been made possible through advances in mobile network technology.


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A Host Bus Adapter card, or HBA card, is a circuit board or integrated circuit adapter that provides physical connectivity between a host system, such as a computer or server, and networks and storage devices. In addition to physical connectivity, an HBA card also performs input and output (I/O) processing. With the addition of an HBA adapter card, the host computer’s microprocessor is no longer required to perform data storage and retrieval operations, therefore resulting in a performance boost.


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An infrared sensor is an electronic device used to sense characteristics of its surroundings, either by emitting or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors are also able to measure the heat of an object and detect motion. Infrared technology is found throughout many industries as well as every-day life. For example, TVs use infrared to receive signals from the remote. Infrared sensors have many benefits, the primary of those being their low power requirements, simple circuitry, and portable features.


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Laminating is a method of preserving important documents and papers such as report covers, certificates, checklists & safety instructions, ID & business cards, photographs, posters, signage, and more. In this context, laminatior typically involves attaching a plastic cover over a piece of paper, usually for the purpose of guarding it against damage and ensuring it stays in good condition for as long as possible. The plastic coating also helps enhance color and presentability, in addition to providing a wipe-clean surface allowing you to mark the surface with dry-erase pens.


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Despite the terms modem and router often being used interchangeably, they are different devices. Although they look similar and both provide access to the internet, they use different technologies and function differently. This blog will take a look at both modems and routers and provide some details to help differentiate the two.


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The Global Positioning System, otherwise known as GPS, is a radionavigation system powered by satellites that surround the globe. First launched in 1978, GPS allows for users to receive geolocation and time information with the use of a GPS receiver. As GPS systems have become widely available for consumer, commercial, and industrial sectors at low costs over the last couple decades, our ability to navigate the world has been revolutionized. As GPS navigation is commonly used for countless applications, understanding its history and use is extremely beneficial for anyone traveling long distances or in unfamiliar territory.


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Memory cards are widely used in a number of professional and personal settings. As devices like smartphones and cameras have a finite amount of storage, users often supplement them with memory cards for added data storage capability. Like any form of data storage media, memory cards are susceptible to many problems. Furthermore, if the card malfunctions, the internal card will likely be in danger as well. As such, regular backup of your memory card is suggested. Backups will have an especially beneficial effect in the event of data corruption. Beyond data corruption, there are many issues that your memory card can encounter. This blog will cover the eight most common memory card problems and how to solve them.


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The aircraft exhaust system is a crucial element of flight, providing the ability to expel exhaust gases for the safety of the engine, its surrounding components, and personnel on board. While the exhaust system is paramount for preventing the build up of carbon monoxide and dangerous pressure, it also has a direct effect on many aircraft engines and their performance. In this blog, we will discuss how the aircraft exhaust system affects the performance of an aircraft engine, as well as discuss the various benefits that exhaust systems provide.


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